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考研英语模拟题及详解知识运用部分一

英语网 | 2014-10-27
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  Section ⅠUse of English   Directions:   Read the following text. Choose the best word from each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1.   一、美陪审团制度   As former colonists of Great Britain, the Founding Fathers of the United States adopted much of the legal system of Great Britain. We have a “common law”, or law made by courts__1__a monarch or other central governmental__2__like a legislature. The jury, a__3__of ordinary citizens chosen to decide a case, is an__4__ part of our common-law system.   Use of juries to decide cases is a__5__feature of the American legal system. Few other countries in the world use juries as we do in the United States.__6__the centuries, many people have believed that juries in most cases reach a fairer and more just result__7__would be obtained using a judge__8__, as many countries do.__9__a jury decides cases after “__10__”, or discussions among a group of people, the jury’s decision is likely to have the__11__ from many different people from different backgrounds, who must as a group decide what is right.   Juries are used in both civil cases, which decide__12__ among__13__ citizens, and criminal cases, which decide cases brought by the government __14__ that individuals have committed crimes. Juries are selected from the U.S. citizens and__15__. Jurors, consisting of __16__ numbers, are called for each case requiring a jury.   The judge__17__to the case__18__the selection of jurors to serve as the jury for that case. In some states,__19__jurors are questioned by the judge; in others, they are questioned by the lawyers representing the__20__under rules dictated by state law.   1. [A] other than [B] rather than [C] more than [D] or rather   2. [A] agency [B] organization [C] institution [D] authority   3. [A] panel [B] crew [C] band [D] flock   4. [A] innate [B] intact [C] integral [D] integrated   5. [A]discriminating[B] distinguishing [C] determining [D] diminishing   6. [A] in [B] by [C] after [D] over   7. [A] that [B] which [C] than [D] as   8. [A] alike [B] alone [C] altogether [D] apart   9. [A] Although [B] Because [C] If [D] While   10.[A] deliberations [B] meditations [C] reflections [D] speculations   11.[A] outline [B] outcome [C] input [D] intake   12.[A] arguments [B] controversies [C] disputes [D] hostilities   13.[A] fellow [B] individual [C] personal [D] private   14.[A] asserting [B] alleging [C] maintaining [D] testifying   15.[A] assembled [B] evoked [C] rallied [D] summoned   16.[A] set [B] exact [C] given [D] placed   17.[A] allocated [B] allotted [C] appointed [D] assigned   18.[A] administers [B] manages [C] oversees [D] presides   19.[A] inspective [B] irrespective [C] perspective [D] prospective   20.[A] bodies [B] parties [C] sides [D] units   答案   1. B 2. D 3. A 4. C 5. B 6. D 7.C 8.B 9. B 10. A   11. C 12. C 13.D 14.B 15. D 16. A 17. D 18. C 19. D 20. B   总体分析   本文介绍了美国的陪审团制度。第一段指出,陪审团是美国共同法系统的基本组成部分。第二段分析了使用陪审团的原因。第三和四段分别介绍了陪审团的类型和选举程序。   全文翻译   美国的建国之父们作为大英帝国的前殖民者沿袭了其法律系统。我们有“共同法”,即由法庭而非君主或其他像立法机关这样的中央政府权利机关制定的法律。陪审团由一群选来裁决案件的普通公民组成,是我们共同法系统基本的组成部分。   使用陪审团裁决案件是美国法律系统的一个显著特征。在世界上很少有其他国家和美国一样使用陪审团。几个世纪以来,许多人已经相信在大多数情况下陪审团比许多国家那样单独使用一位法官达成的结果更公平、公正。因为陪审团裁决案件是在一群人“审议”或讨论后,因此他们的决定可能受到不同背景的不同人的影响,这些人必须作为一个团体来决定什么是正确的。   陪审团既被用在裁决普通公民之间纠纷的民事案件中,也用在裁决政府提出讼诉声称个人犯罪的刑事案件中。陪审团成员从美国公民中选出并被传唤。由固定人数组成的陪审团在每一个需要陪审团的案件中都会被召唤。   被指派负责案件的法官监督陪审团成员的选举。在一些州,未来的陪审团成员由法官询问,而在另一些州,他们遵照州法律规定的法规接受代表各方当事人的律师的询问。
 
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