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2008年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语试题及答案

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  Section Ⅰ Use of English   Directions:   Read the following text. Choose the best word for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)   The idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than others is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name. But Gregory Cochran is 1 to say it anyway. He is that 2 bird, a scientist who works independently 3 any institution. He helped popularize the idea that some diseases not 4 thought to have a bacterial cause were actually infections, which aroused Much controversy when it was first suggested.   5 he, however, might tremble at the 6 of what he is about to do. Together with another two scientists, he is publishing a paper which not only 7 that one group of humanity is more intelligent than the others, but explains the process that has brought this about. The group in 8 are a particular people originated from central Europe. The process is natural selection.   This group generally do well in IQ test, 9 12-15 points above the 10 value of 100, and have contributed 11 to the intellectual and cultural life of the West, as the 12 of their elites, including several world-renowned scientists, 13 . They also suffer more often than most people from a number of nasty genetic diseases, such as breast cancer. These facts, 14 , have previously been thought unrelated. The former has been 15 to social effects, such as a strong tradition of 16 education. The latter was seen as a (an) 17 of genetic isolation. Dr. Cochran suggests that the intelligence and diseases are intimately 18 . His argument is that the unusual history of these people has 19 them to unique evolutionary pressures that have resulted in this 20 state of affairs.   1. [A] selected [B] prepared [C] obliged [D] pleased   2. [A] unique [B] particular [C] special [D] rare   3. [A] of [B] with [C] in [D] against   4. [A] subsequently [B] presently [C] previously [D] lately   5. [A] Only [B] So [C] Even [D] Hence   6. [A] thought [B] sight [C] cost [D] risk   7. [A] advises [B] suggests [C] protests [D] objects   8. [A] progress [B] fact [C] need [D] question   9. [A] attaining [B] common [C] mean [D] calculating   10.[A] normal [B] common [C] mean [D] total   11.[A] unconsciously [B] disproportionately [C] indefinitely [D] unaccountably   12.[A] missions [B] fortunes [C] interests [D] careers   13.[A] affirm [B] witness [C] observe [D] approve   14.[A] moreover [B] therefore [C] however [D] meanwhile   15.[A] given up [B] got over [C] carried on [D] put down   16.[A] assessing [B] supervising [C] administering [D] valuing   17.[A] development [B] origin [C] consequence [D]instrument   18.[A] linked [B] integrated [C] woven [D] combined   19.[A] limited [B] subjected [C] converted [D] directed   20.[A] paradoxical [B] incompatible [C] inevitable [D] continuous   Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension   Part A   Directions:   Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C, or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)   Text 1   While still catching-up to men in some spheres of modern life, women appear to be way ahead in at least one undesirable category. Women are particularly susceptible to developing depression and anxiety disorders in response to stress compared to men, according to Dr. Yehuda, chief psychiatrist at New York''s Veteran''s Administration Hospital.   Studies of both animals and humans have shown that sex hormones somehow affects the stress response, causing females under stress to produce more of the trigger chemicals than do males under the same conditions. In several of the studies, when stressed-out female rats had their ovaries (the female reproductive organs) removed, their chemical responses became equal to those of the males.   Adding to a woman''s increased dose of stress chemicals, are her increased opportunities for stress. It''s not necessarily that women don''t cope as well. It''s just that they have so much more to cope with, says Dr. Yehuda. Their capacity for tolerating stress may even be greater than men''s, she observes, It''s just that they''re dealing with so many more things that they become worn out from it more visibly and sooner.   Dr. Yehuda notes another difference between the sexes. I think that the kinds of things that women are exposed to tend to be in more of a chronic or repeated nature. Men go to war and are exposed to combat stress. Men are exposed to more acts of random physical violence. The kinds of interpersonal violence that women are exposed to tend to be in domestic situations, by, unfortunately, parents or other family numbers, and they tend not to be one-shot deals. The wear-and-tear that comes from these longer relationships can be quite devastating.   Adeline Alvarez married at 18 and gave birth to a son, but wad determined to finish college. I struggled a lot to get the college degree. I was living in so much frustration that that was my escape, to go to school, and get ahead and do better. Later her marriage ended and she became a single mother. It''s the hardest thing to take care of a teenager, have a job, pay the rent, pay the car payment, and pay the debt. I lived from paycheck to paycheck.   Not everyone experiences the kinds of severe chronic stresses Alvarez describes. But most women today are coping with a lot of obligations, with few breaks, and feeling the strain. Alvarez''s experience demonstrates the importance of finding ways to diffuse stress before it threatens your health and your ability to function.   21. Which of the following is true according to the first two paragraphs?   [A] Women are biologically more vulnerable to stress.   [B] Women are still suffering much stress caused by men.   [C] Women are more experienced than men in coping with stress.   [D] Men and women show different inclinations when faced with stress.   22. Dr. Yehuda''s research suggests that women   [A] Need extra doses of chemicals to handle stress.   [B] Have limited capacity for tolerating stress.   [C] Are more capable of avoiding stress.   [D] Are exposed to more stress.   23. According to Paragraph 4, the stress women confront tends to be   [A] domestic and temporary.   [B] irregular and violent.   [C] durable and frequent.   [D] trivial and random.   24. The sentence I lived from paycheck to paycheck.(Line 6, Para. 5) shows that   [A] Alvarez cared about nothing but making money.   [B] Alvarez''s salary barely covered her household expenses.   [C] Alvarez got paychecks from different jobs.   [D] Alvarez paid practically everything by check.   25. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?   [A] Strain of Stress: No Way Out?   [B] Responses to Stress: Gender Difference   [C] Stress Analysis: What Chemicals Say   [D] Gender Inequality: Women Under Stress   Text 2   It used to be so straightforward. A team of researchers working together in the laboratory would submit the results of their research to a journal. A journal editor would then remove the authors names and affiliations from the paper and send it to their peers for review. Depending on the comments received, the editor would accept the paper for publication or decline it. Copyright rested with the journal publisher, and researchers seeking knowledge of the results would have to subscribe to the journal.   No longer. The Internet and pressure from funding agencies, who are questioning why commercial publishers are making money from government-funded research by restricting access to it- is making access to scientific results a reality. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has just issued a report describing the far-reaching consequences of this. The report, by John Houghton of Victoria University in Australia and Graham Vickery of the OECD, makes heavy reading for publishers who have, so far, made handsome profits. But it goes further than that. It signals a change in what has, until now, been a key element of scientific endeavor.   The value of knowledge and the return on the public investment in research depends, in part, upon wide distribution and ready access. It is big business. In America, the core scientific publishing market is estimated at between $7 billion and $11 billion. The International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical Publishers says that there are more than 2,000 publishers worldwide specializing in these subjects. They publish more than 1.2 million articles each year in some 16,000 journals.   This is now changing. According to the OECD report, some 75% of scholarly journals are now online. Entirely new business models are emerging; three main institutional subscribers pay for access to a collection of online journal titles through site-licensing agreements. There is open-access publishing, typically supported by asking the author (or his employer) to pay for the paper to be published. Finally, there are open-access archives, where organizations such as universities or international laboratories support institutional repositories. Other models exist that are hybrids of these three, such as delayed open-access, where journals allow only subscribers to read a paper for the first six months, before making it freely available to everyone who wishes to see it. All this could change the traditional form of the peer-review process, at least for the publication of papers.   26. In the first paragraph, the author discusses   [A] the background information of journal editing.   [B] the publication routine of laboratory reports.   [C] the relations of authors with journal publishers.   [D] the traditional process of journal publication.   27. Which of the following is true of the OECD report?   [A] It criticizes government-funded research.   [B] It introduces an effective means of publication.   [C] It upsets profit-making journal publishers.   [D] It benefits scientific research considerably.   28. According to the text, online publication is significant in that   [A] it provides an easier access to scientific results.   [B] it brings huge profits to scientific researchers.   [C] it emphasizes the crucial role of scientific knowledge.   [D] it facilitates public investment in scientific research.   29. With the open-access publishing model, the author of a paper is required to   [A] cover the cost of its publication.   [B] subscribe to the journal publishing it.   [C] allow other online journals to use it freely.   [D] complete the peer-review before submission.   30. Which of the following best summarizes the main idea of the passage?   [A] The Internet is posing a threat to publishers.   [B] A new mode of publication is emerging.   [C] Authors welcome the new channel for publication.   [D] Publication is rendered easier by online service.   Text 3   In the early 1960s Wilt Chamberlain was one of only three players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) listed at over seven feet. If he had played last season, however, he would have been one of 42. The bodies playing major professional sports have changed dramatically over the years, and managers have been more than willing to adjust team uniforms to fit the growing numbers of bigger, longer frames.   The trend in sports, though, may be obscuring an unrecognized reality: Americans have generally stopped growing. Though typically about two inches taller now than 140 years ago, today''s people- especially those born to families who have lived in the U.S. for many generations- apparently reached their limit in the early 1960s. And they aren’t likely to get any taller. In the general population today, at this genetic, environmental level, we''ve pretty much gone as far as we can go, says anthropologist William Cameron Chumlea of Wright State University. In the case of NBA players, their increase in height appears to result from the increasingly common practice of recruiting players from all over the world.   Growth, which rarely continues beyond the age of 20, demands calories and nutrients–notably, protein–to feed expanding tissues. At the start of the 20th century, under-nutrition and childhood infections got in the way. But as diet and health improved, children and adolescents have, on average, increased in height by about an inch and a half every 20 years, a pattern known as the secular trend in height. Yet according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, average height- 5′9〞for men, 5′4〞for women- hasn''t really changed since 1960.   Genetically speaking, there are advantages to avoiding substantial height. During childbirth, larger babies have more difficulty passing through the birth canal. Moreover, even though humans have been upright for millions of years, our feet and back continue to struggle with bipedal posture and cannot easily withstand repeated strain imposed by oversize limbs. There are some real constraints that are set by the genetic architecture of the individual organism, says anthropologist William Leonard of Northwestern University.   Genetic maximums can change, but don''t expect this to happen soon. Claire C. Gordon, senior anthropologist at the Army Research Center in Natick, Mass, ensures that 90 percent of the uniforms and workstations fit recruits without alteration. She says that, unlike those for basketball, the length of military uniforms has not changed for some time. And if you need to predict human height in the near future to design a piece of equipment, Gordon says that by and large, you could use today’s data and feel fairly confident.   31. Wilt Chamberlain is cited as an example to   [A] illustrate the change of height of NBA players.   [B] show the popularity of NBA players in the U.S……   [C] compare different generations of NBA players.   [D] assess the achievements of famous NBA players.   32. Which of the following plays a key role in body growth according to the text?   [A] Genetic modification.   [B] Natural environment.   [C] Living standards.   [D] Daily exercise.   33. On which of the following statements would the author most probably agree?   [A] Non-Americans add to the average height of the nation.   [B] Human height is conditioned by the upright posture.   [C] Americans are the tallest on average in the world.   [D] Larger babies tend to become taller in adulthood.   34. We learn from the last paragraph that in the near future   [A] the garment industry will reconsider the uniform size.   [B] the design of military uniforms will remain unchanged.   [C] genetic testing will be employed in selecting sportsmen.   [D] the existing data of human height will still be applicable.   35. The text intends to tell us that   [A] the change of human height follows a cyclic pattern.   [B] human height is becoming even more predictable.   [C] Americans have reached their genetic growth limit.   [D] the genetic pattern of Americans has altered.   Part B   Directions:   In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)   The time for sharpening pencils, arranging your desk, and doing almost anything else instead of writing has ended. The first draft will appear on the page only if you stop avoiding the inevitable and sit, stand up, or lie down to write. (41)   Be flexible. Your outline should smoothly conduct you from one point to the next, but do not permit it to railroad you. If a relevant and important idea occurs to you now, work it into the draft. (42)Grammar, punctuation, and spelling can wait until you revise. Concentrate on what you are saying. Good writing most often occurs when you are in hot pursuit of an idea rather than in a nervous search for errors.   (43)Your pages will be easier to keep track of that way, and, if you have to clip a paragraph to place it elsewhere, you will nit lose any writing on the other side.   If you are working on a word processor, you can take advantage of its capacity to make additions and deletions as well as move entire paragraph by making just a few simple keyboard commands. Some software programs can also check spelling and certain grammatical elements in your writing.(44)These printouts are also easier to read than the screen when you work on revision.   Once you have a first draft on paper, you can delete material that in unrelated to your thesis and add material necessary to illustrate your points and make your paper convincing. The student who wrote: The A P as a State of Mind wisely dropped a paragraph that questioned whether Sammy displays chauvinistic attitudes toward women.   (45)Remember that your initial draft is only that. You should go through the paper many times-and then again- working to substantiate and clarify your ideas. You may even end up with several entire versions of the paper. Rewrite. The sentences within each paragraph should be related to a single topic. Transitions should connect one paragraph to the next so that there are no abrupt or confusing shifts. Awkward or wordy phrasing or unclear sentences and paragraphs should be mercilessly poked and prodded into shape.   [A] To make revising easier, leave wide margins and extra space between lines so that you can easily add words, sentences, and corrections. Write on only one side of the paper.   After you have clearly and adequately developed the body of your paper, pay particular attention to the introductory and concluding paragraphs. It''s probably best to write the introduction last, after you know precisely what you are introducing. Concluding paragraphs demand equal attention because they leave the reader with a final impression.   [C] It's worth remembering, however, that though a clean copy fresh off a printer may look terrific, it will read only as well as the thinking and writing that have gone into it. Many writers prudently store their data on disks and print their pages each time they finish a draft to avoid losing any material because of power failures or other problems.   [D] It makes no difference how you write, just so you do. Now that you have developed a topic into a tentative thesis, you can assemble your notes and begin to flesh out whatever outline you have made.   [E] Although this is an interesting issue, it has nothing to do with the thesis, which explains how the setting influences Sammy's decision to quit his job. Instead of including that paragraph, she added one that described Lengel’s crabbed response to the girls so that she could lead up to the A P policy he enforces.   [F] In the final paragraph about the significance of the setting in A P, the student brings together the reasons Sammy quit his job by referring to his refusal to accept Lengel's store policies.   [G] By using the first draft as a means of thinking about what you want to say, you will very likely discover more than your notes originally suggested. Plenty of good writers don't use outlines at all but discover ordering principles as they write. Do not attempt to compose a perfectly correct draft the first time around.   Part C   Directions:   Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2.   In his autobiography, Darwin himself speaks of his intellectual powers with extraordinary modesty. He points out that he always experienced much difficulty in expressing himself clearly and concisely, but he believes that this very difficulty may have had the compensating advantage of forcing him to think long and intently about every sentence, and thus enabling him to detect errors in reasoning and in his own observations. He disclaimed he possession of any great quickness of apprehension or wit, such as distinguished Huxley. He asserted, also, that his power to follow a long and purely abstract train of thought was very limited, for which reason felt certain that he never could have succeeded with mathematics. His memory, too, he described as extensive, but hazy. So poor in one sense was it that he never could remember for more than a few days a single date or a line of poetry. On the other hand, he did not accept as well founded the charge made by some of his critics that, while he was a good observer, he had no power of reasoning. This, he thought, could not be true, because the “Origin of Species” is one long argument from the beginning to the end, and has convinced many able men. No one, he submits, could have written it without possessing some power of reasoning. He was willing to assert that “I have a fair share of invention, and of common sense or judgment, such as every fairly successful lawyer or doctor must have, but not, I believe, in any higher degree.” He adds humbly that perhaps he was “superior to the common run of men in noticing things which easily escape attention, and in observing them carefully.”   Writing in the last year of his life, he expressed the opinion that in two or three respects his mind had changed during the preceding twenty or thirty years. Up to the age of thirty or beyond it poetry of many kids gave him great pleasure. Formerly, too, pictures had given him considerable, and music very great, delight. In 1881, however, he said:“Now for many years I cannot endure to read a line of poetry. I have also almost lost my taste for pictures or music.” Darwin was convinced that the loss of these tastes was not only a loss of happiness, but might possibly be injurious to the intellect, and more probably to the moral character.   Section Ⅲ Writing   Part A   51. Directions:   You have just come back from Canada and found a music CD in your luggage that you forgot to return to Bob, your landlord there. Write him a letter to   1) make an apology, and   2) suggest a solution.   You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2.   Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Li Ming” instead.   Do not write the address.   Part B   52. Directions:   Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should   1) describe the drawing briefly,   2) explain its intended meaning, and then   3) give your comments.   You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2.   2008年硕士研究生考试英语真题详解   完型填空   1、答案:B   解析:本题测试语义逻辑衔接。 “ selected” 意为 “挑选”; “prepared”意为 “准备”; “obliged”意为“迫使,责成”;“pleased”意为“高兴地,满足地”, 前一句“人们不敢说”,本句中由“but ”一词可推出意思与上句相反,即“Cochran 准备说”, 所以选B.   2、答案:D   解析:本题测试词义辨析 。“unique”意为“唯一的, 独特的”;“particular”意为“特殊的, 独特的”;“special”意为“特别的, 特殊的”;“rare”意为“稀罕的,珍贵的”,rare bird 意为“稀有的人”,空格相关意思是“只有Cochra准备说”, 而且 “rare bird” 是固定搭配,所以选D   3、答案:A   解析:本题测试介词的语意搭配, independently of 意为“不依赖于, 独立”,所以选A   4、答案:C   解析:本题测试词义辨析。由“actually”推出本句是对现在和以前对疾病看法的对比,所以选C   5、答案:C   解析:本题测试副词的用法及语段的连贯性。Even 做程度副词,表示递进关系,意为“即使他自己也…”.所以选C   6、答案:A   解析:本题测试词义搭配。空格相关意思是“一想到他即将要做的,即使他自己也….” “At thought of ”意为“一看到…”; at sight of意为年“一看见”;at cost of 意为“以…的代价”;at risk of意为“冒着….的危险”,所以选A   7、答案:B   解析:本题测试动词辨析。advice意为 “建议”; suggest意为“建议,提出’”; protest“主张,断言”; object“反对”,此句指“在论文中, 他建议…”,所以选B   8、答案:D   解析:本题测试词组搭配,in progress 意为“进行中”;in fact 意为“事实上”; in need意为“在危难中”; in question 意为“正在被讨论的”,前一句正在谈论 “ group群体” ,本句衔接上一句表达“正在被讨论的这个群体”,所以选D   9. 答案:B   解析:本题考查动词辨析。从该句中的12-15 points 可知,前面的动词是与分数相关的。score的意思是得分,打分,而其他三项没有这层意思。故答案为B。   10. 答案:C   解析:本题考查形容词辨析。文中提到这组人IQ测试得分比100分高12-15分,按照常识,100分是平均分,mean的意思是平均的。所以答案为C。   11. 答案:B   解析:本题考查上下文的逻辑关系和副词辨析。disproportionately的意思是不成比例地,不相称地,比例太大。这句话要传达的意思是这组人做贡献的比例非常大,故答案选B。   12. 答案:D   解析:本题考查上下文的逻辑关系和名词辨析。as引导的状语从句用一些精英的职业证明前面提到的这组人所做的贡献非常大,career的意思是职业,事业,符合此意,故选D。   13. 答案:A   解析:本题考查动词辨析。选项[A]affirm意为确认,肯定,符合题意。而[B]witness常用作及物动词,表示见证,表明;[C]observe, 表示观察,评论,以人作主语;[D]意思为批准,通过的意思,也是人作主语。故答案为A。   14. 答案:C   解析:本题考查逻辑关系。前文同时叙述了关于这组人的两种现象,这两种现象明显是有关联的,但是这句话说到先前人们认为两者没有关系,上下文构成转折关系,故选C。   15. 答案:D   解析:本题考查固定搭配。get down to的意思是归因于,符合句意。而give up to的意思是让给,get over to的意思是让某人明白某事,carry on的意思是继续开展,坚持,均不合题意。故答案为D。   16. 答案:D   解析:本题考查动词辨析。此处要传达的意思是重视教育的传统,只有[D]valuing符合题意。   17. 答案:C   解析:本题考查名词辨析。此句的意思是后者是由genetic isolation导致的结果,consequence的意思是结果,后果,故答案为C。   18. 答案:A   解析:本题考查动词辨析。此句Dr. Cochran的观点是这两者是密切关联的。link表示两者之间的关联或联系;integrate表示两者结合为一个整体;wave表示两者交织在一起;combine表示两者结合。只有link符合题意。故选A。   19. 答案:B   解析:本题考查动词辨析。subject to意为使…经受或遭受;limit to表示限制;convert to表示转变;direct to表示指向。本句的意思是说这些人不同寻常的历史使他们经受了独特的进化压力,只有B符合题意。   20. 答案:A   解析:本题考查形容词辨析。此处要传达的意思是独特的进化压力导致了这种似乎矛盾的状况。paradoxical 表示似乎矛盾的,似是而非的;incompatible表示不兼容的,不协调的;inevitable表示不可避免的;continuous表示连续的。只有A符合题意   阅读理解Part A   Passage one   21.A   题目问的是通过对前两段的了解选出正确选项。通过对原文的了解可知,文章前两段主要描写男女因为生理上的差异,所以可能在相同的情况下,女性可能更容易在压力下产生焦虑和沮丧。B项和C项不符合文意,B项所指的女性遭受压力多来自男性偏离文章线索。C项所说的女性相比男性更有处理压力的经验也是断章取义 。D选项只是单纯描述男女之间在面对压力的差异,与中心偏离。   22.B   Dr.Ychuda 的研究中指出,女性实际上或许更善于容忍压力,是因为面对的压力比男性要多得多,所以才容易在压力面前表现出焦虑。A项意思错误,文章含义是指其因为身体所具备的化学物质而更易焦虑。B选项错在文中第三段第三行所提的女性容忍压力的能力或许比男性要更好。   23.C   第四段中指出,女性面临的压力大多来自家庭内部而且时常发生,并非如男性所面临的压力大多是战争和具有偶然性的动态情况中。C选项中的“持久性”和“频繁性”符合文意。A项意思是“家庭内部的”和“暂时性的”,B项是“不规则型的”和“暴力性的”,D项是“琐碎的”和“偶然的”。   24.B   句子意思是指“我活在不停的支付支票生活中”。从文中我们可以看出,因为是单身母亲,Alvarez面临很大的生存压力,付房租,支付用车花销,偿还贷款等。只有B项中所指的她的薪水几乎不能满足日常生活开销符合文意。   25. D   因为性别上的差异,女性在压力面前的主要表现。A项过于宽泛,离开了文中关于性别之间讨论的中心。C项只是文章中的一个具体知识点,不能概括文章全部内容。B项只是单纯指出了男女在压力面前的差异,但没有注意文章中侧重女性压力前表现的文意。   Passage two   26.B   解析:本题考查的是考生对第一段的理解。根据文章,第一段作者说到,实验室把他们的研究结果递交刊物,刊物的编辑在隐去作者姓名及相关信息后把论文递交给编审,根据审查结果或出版或拒绝出版此篇论文。版权由杂志社保留。研究者必须订阅杂志才能查找此研究结果的相关文章。很明显,此段讲述的是实验室报告的出版程序。选项A刊物编辑的背景信息和选项C作者与出版商的关系及选项D刊物出版的传统流程都未能准确概括本段的含义。   27.C   解析:从文章   本题的答案信息来源在文章的第二段。第二段说到,互联网使接触到科学结果成为一个现实。OECD刚刚发布一个报告,描写了其深远的影响。这份报告使到目前为止赢得不菲利润的很多出版商争相阅读。第三段说到核心科学出版市场利润巨大,第四段说到,这种情况正在改变,也是在线出版可能让他们利润下滑,所以让他们有些不安,故答案为C。   28.A   解析:从文章结构看,文章第一段重点地介绍了传统的出版方式,这种方式使科学工作者只有订购了该科学杂志才可以获得科学的结果。文章第二段介绍一种新型的出版方式——网络出版,使得科技人员容易获得科学结果。第三段谈到科学的价值和投资回报取决于杂志的发行量和易获得性。第四段具体介绍了这一新趋势的主要出版模式。从文章的中心是关于一种新的出版方式,以及它给科学杂志出版带来的影响——可以更方便的获得科学结果。中心词含有access,反应中心的是解,可以确定答案为A。   29.A   解析:从文中“there is open-access publishing,typically supported by asking the author to pay for the paper to be publish”可知答案为A。   30.B   解析:正于28题分析的,本文中心介绍了一种出版新的趋势——网络出版。B正是这一观点的高度概括,故答案为B.   Passage three   31. A   文中“…listed at over seven feet. If he had ….The bodies.. changed dramatically over the years”可以看出此段主要讲述NBA球员身高的变化;另外,从文章中心来看,可以排出B,C,D。因此选A   32. C   从第三段“but as diet and health improved, children and adolescents have increased in height by…..”可以看出生活水平对于身体成长起着非常重要的作用;另外,A,B,D选项所涉及的genetic modification ,natural environment 和daily exercise文中并没有提到;   33. B   题干中提到“most probably..”,通过排出法,可以确定B为最佳选项。   34. D   最后一段Claire C. Gordon提到90%的制服和工作站仍将会适合新招人员,这就暗示了D选项所提到的内容。另外,可以依据排出法可以知道A,B,C不正确。   35. C   从全文中心来看,文章并不是以“predict human height”为中心的,而是在谈美国人身高问题。所以C选项为正确选项。   Passage four   36. C   根据文章的逻辑一致性和联系,从第二段的“But recently, many historians have begun to focus on the roles of slavery…..”可以看出作者在第一段举George Washing对待奴隶的例子是为了说明“美国历史上奴隶制的作用”。因此选C   37. D   根据排除法A项中的widely是错误的,排除;B项中说的太笼统,而第二段在讲关于slavery. C项中deliberately和made up是不对的。因此选D。   38. C   从文章的内容来看,Jefferson知道奴隶制是错误的,但是他又作出了compromise,从此而知,其对待奴隶制的态度是复杂的.   39. A   从最后第二段第二句中可以看出Jefferson能在1800年大选中以微弱优势胜出是得意于其“将努力看作3/5人”,A选项是正确的。   40. B   从最后一段“after observing the bravery of the black soldiers during the Revolutionary War…. ”可以看出Washington做出释放奴隶的决定是在他看见黑人士兵在独立战争中的英勇作战以后,因此B为正确选项   Part B   08 年考试的新题型 仍旧是考生熟悉的七选五题型。本文主要内容是告诉读者如何利用好写作中的第一稿。   41题 D   空前面出现的内容告诉读者如果写文章时只要作者不再试图避免一些事情第一稿就会跃然纸上,在空后第一句里出现了outline这个词,因此41题中也会出现和outline相关的内容。D选项的内容就中提到用什么方式来写作不重要,重要的是定下一个题目,然后可以通过整理笔记来填充你的outline。空前面所提到的坐着写、站着写、躺着写说的正是写作的方式。   42 题 G   选项是在讲draft的问题,所以答案中还会涉及到draft。选项后的句子中提到:一些写作中的错误可以等到修改的时候才去处理。选项的最后提到不要尝试在第一次的时候写出完全没有任何错误的文稿,因此G选项符合这个逻辑。   43 题 A   在选项后面出现了that way 所以上文中会说到具体的哪种方式,只有A选项提到了具体的方式,因此符合题意。   44. 题 C   选项后面提到了these printouts,空前面提到:“在修改过程中,看打印出来的材料比看电脑屏幕容易。”因此44题选项中也会有和打印出来的材料相关的内容。C选项中很明显地有copy 还有 printer对应下文中所提及的打印出来的材料。   45. 题 E   前文提到Sammy这个人,这是一个线索词,选项中E 和F中都包含这个词,但是此段的主题句提到,在写作中要删去与主题不相关的素材,E选项中instead of adding that paragraph,也就意味着删去了这段。和主题句对应。   而F选项只是在说最后一段的具体内容,和本段的主题句不相关,故不符合题意   Part C   46. He believes that this very difficulty may have had the compensating advantage of forcing him to think long and intently about every sentence, and thus enabling him to detect errors in reasoning and in his own observations.   本句的考查点是that引导的宾语从句,主干是he believes that….that从句的结构是this very difficulty may have the….advantage of forcing…, and thus enabling…。Of后面forcing和enabling组成的并列结构做advantage的同位语。   参考译文:达尔文认为正是因为这个困难,促使他对每一个句子进行长时间和针对性的思考,同时也使得他在观察和推理中发现错误。这也就使他具有了别人所不具备的优势。   47. He asserted, also, that his power to follow a long and purely abstract train of thought was very limited, for which reason he felt certain that he never could have succeeded with mathematics.   本句考查点是宾语从句,非限制性定语从句。主干是He asserted that…。宾语从句的结构是his power to… was…。其中不定式to引导的部分 follow …of thought做power的定语;for which reason所引导的非限制性定语从句中又包含一个that引导的表语从句。   参考译文:达尔文同时声称,对于冗长而且纯抽象的思想,自己的理解能力并不强。因为这个原因,他相信自己在数学方面根本不会成功。   48. On the other hand, he did not accept as well founded the charge made by some of his critics that, while he was a good observer, he had no power of reasoning.   本句考查点是同位语从句,让步状语从句。主干是he did not accept… the charge made by… that…。其中as well founded作为一个插入成分,对charge进行修饰。made引导的过去分词短语作定语修饰charge。That引导的从句是charge的同位语,包括一个while引导的让步状语从句。   参考译文:另一方面,虽然有些批评他的人一致认为他善于观察,但不具备推理能力,但是他不同意这种说法。   49. He adds humbly that perhaps he was “superior to the common run of men in noticing things which easily escape attention, and in observing them carefully.”   本句考查点是宾语从句,定语从句。主干是he adds …that… 其中宾语从句的结构是he was superior to …in…, and in…。which引导的是things的定语从句。   参考译文:达尔文很谦虚的补充到,有些事情需要高度的注意力和细心的观察,也许他自己在观察此类事情时比一般人有优势。   50. Darvin was convinced that the loss of these tastes was not only a loss of happiness, but might possibly be injurious to the intellect, and more probably to the moral character.   本题考查点是宾语从句。主干是Darvin was convinced that…。其中宾语从句的结构是the loss of these tastes was not only…, but…be injurious to …, and to …。   参考译文:达尔文认为,对兴趣的丧失,失去的不仅仅是一种乐趣,而且可能会伤害到智力,更有甚者还可能伤害到道德   应用文范文   Dear Bob,   I am writing to express my apology to you.   Several days ago, I borrowed your music CD when I lived in your house. Unfortunately, after I came back from Canada, I found it in my luggage. I was in such a hurry that I forgot to return it to you. I will send it to you by post or express as soon as possible. If necessary, I will compensate for any troubles it may cause.   Once again, I feel so sorry for any inconvenience caused. Please accept my apologies.   Sincerely yours,   Li Ming   大作文范文   As is illustrated in the picture, the two disabled persons whose crippled legs are bound together do a lot of traveling. Accordingly, this far-reaching picture reflects a common phenomenon in today’s society: the people who are in the dark want to turn the corner but they can not make it respectively and in turn they have to choose to pull together in times of trouble.   There are several reasons accounting for this. Since we have to live in an on-the-move lifestyle, we may encounter various plights, where we would be at a loss rather than to seek for others’ assistance. Further more, if we do not offer help to each other when we confront dilemma, we would not realize our dream. And no issue in China is as basic to build up the society in harmony as to conduct coordination in face of disasters.   Judging from what have been argued above, people have come to realize the value of mutual aid. It is, therefore, necessary that some effective steps be made to advocate spirit of supporting each other. To begin with, the government should make laws to encourage people to unite. In addition, people should enhance the awareness of caring each other especially when they are in trouble. Only in those ways, can we make people, even not being acquaintance, help each other
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