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职称英语考试重点语法讲解1

英语网整理 | 2012-08-18
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  语态是动词的一种形式,它表示主语和谓语的关系。语态有两种:主动语态和被动语态。如果主语是动作的执行者,或者是说动作是由主语完成的,要用主动语态;如果主语是动作的承受者,或者是说动作不是由主语而是由其他人完成的,则用被动语态。   被动语态考点聚焦   (一)被动语态的概念:   不知道或没必要提到动作的执行者是谁时用被动语态。强调或突出动作的承受者常用被动语态(by短语有时可以省略)。   (二)被动语态的构成方式:   be + 过去分词,口语只也有用get / become + 过去分词表示。   (三)被动语态的基本用法:   (1)使用被动语态时应注意的几个问题。   ①主动变化被动时双宾语的变化。看下列例句。   My friend gave me an interesting book on my birthday.   An interesting book was given to me(by my friend)on my birthday.   I was given an interesting book (by my friend)on my birthday.   ②主动变被动时,宾补成主补(位置不变);(作补语的)不定式前需加to。   The boss made him work all day long.   He was made to work all day long(by the boss)   ③短语动词变被动语态时,勿要掉“尾巴”。   The children were taken good care of (by her).   Your pronunciation and spelling should be paid attention to.   ④情态动词和be going to、be to、be sure to、used to、have to、had better等结构变被动语态,只需将它们后面的动词原形变为be +过去分词。   ⑤当句子的谓语为say、believe、expect、think、know、write、consider、report等时,被动语态有两种形式:(A)谓语动词用被动语态,动词不定式作主补。(B)用it作形式主语,真正的主语在后面用主语在后面用主语从句来表示。如:   People say he is a smart boy.   It is said that he is a smart boy.   He is said to be a smart boy.   People know paper was made in China first.   It is known that paper was made in China first.   Paper was known to be made in China first.   类似句型有:It is said / known / suggested / believed / hoped/ thought that …   ①所有的不及物动词或不及物动词词组不能用于被动语态之中。   ②表示状态的谓语动词,如:last、hold、benefit、contain、equal、fit、join、mean、last、look like、consist to等。   ③表示归属的动词,如 have、own、belong to等。   ④表示“希望、意图”的动词,如:wish、want、hope、like、love、hate 等。   ⑤宾语是反身代词或相互代词时谓语动词用主动语态,不能用被动语态。   ⑥宾语是同源宾语,不定式、动名词等谓语动词不用被动语态。   ⑦有些动词以其主动形式表示被动意义,特别是当主语是物时,常见的动词有sell、write、wash、open、lock等。   (3)主动形式表被动意义。   ①当feel、look、smell、taste、sound等后面接形容词时;当cut、read、 sell、wear、write等词带状语修饰语时;当动词表示“开始、结束、关、停、转、启动”等意义时。   This kind of cloth washes easily.这种布易洗。   These novels won't sell well.这些小说不畅销。   My pen writes smoothly.我的钢笔写起来很流畅。   The door won't lock.门锁不上。   The fish smells good.鱼闻起来香。   ②当break out、take place、shut off、turn off、work out等动词表示“发生、关闭、制定”等意思时。   The plan worked out successfully.   The lamps on the wall turn off.   ③want、require、need后面的动名词用主动表示被动含义。   ④be worth doing用主动形式表示被动含义。   ⑤在“be + 形容词 + to do”中,不定式的逻辑宾语是句子的主语,用主动代被动。   This kind of water isn't fit to drink.   The girl isn't easy to get along with.
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